Purpose: To validate the cytotoxicity test of perfluorocarbon liquids (PFCLs) for intraocular use according to the ISO 10993-5 standard.
Methods: BALB/3T3, ARPE-19 cell lines, and 3-mm human retina ex vivo samples were cultured in 96-well plates. Contact areas of 22%, 59%, and 83% and 2.5-, 12-, and 24-hour contact times were tested in cell lines. Cell viability was quantified by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay in ARPE-19 and neutral red uptake (NRU) viability assay for BALB/3T3. Apoptosis was evaluated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay in ARPE-19 cells. 1-H perfluorooctane (1H PFO) and purified perfluorooctane (PFO) were used as cytotoxic and not cytotoxic controls, respectively. Cell viability was assessed by MTT assay in retina ex vivo samples.
Results: Qualitative evaluation showed that cytotoxic control induced apoptosis, severe reactivity zones, and cytotoxicity according to ISO 10993-5 in all tested conditions. Quantitative evaluation of 1H PFO showed no cytotoxicity according to ISO 10993-5 on 22% areas, whereas cytotoxicity was detected on 59%, and 83% contact areas. The PFO was confirmed not to be cytotoxic in all tested conditions.
Quantitative evaluation in retina ex vivo samples confirmed no cytotoxicity with PFO and cytotoxicity with 1H PFO.
Conclusions: The direct contact cytotoxicity test according to ISO 10993-5 is a suitable method to detect the cytotoxicity of PFCLs and was validated using
quantitative and qualitative approaches in ARPE-19 and BALB/3T3 cells covering 59% of the cell surface areas for 24 hours.
Translational Relevance: Direct contact cytotoxicity test using specific conditions was validated, whereas different test conditions could not be validated.